Skip to main content

Full text of "Practical Organic Chemistry"

See other formats


4.  Alcoholic ammonia forms a mixture of primary, secondary
and tertiary amines,

C,H,I -I- Nil, - CJIr.NU,  i   III
2CoIIfiI  I- Nil, =-. (C.JUoNil   I  2III
SCJIfll -i- Nil, - Coil.-,):, N I  3III.

The tertiary amines unite with the alkyl iodide to form the
quaternary ammonium iodide, which is produced at the same.
time as the other products.

(Col Ia).,N -h QI r,I = (CVi I C)4NI .

5.   Potassium cyanide forms alkyl cyanide,

cyi,, i + KCN ^ caiisCN i- KI.

6.   Potassium hydrosulphidc gives the mcrcaptan,

cjirj -i- Ksir - cjifiSir + KI.

7.   Potassium sulphide forms the thio-ether,

2CII5I -I- IwS - (C,Iln)oS  !   2KI

8.   Silver nitrite jj'ivcs the nitro-paraffm,

CoIIrJ -|- Ai;-N(X ~ CjHnNC)., -\- Agl.

9.   Silver salts of organic or inorganic acids yield the alkyl

aCJIrJ -I- A&jSO.! -- (CJIr,)oS(), -I- 2Aj;I.

Ethyl Ether. -This reaction is of a general character. P\'
usinj4" a different alcohol in the reservoir from that in the* flask,
a mixed ether may be obtained. Thus, ethyl alcohol and amy'l
alcohol may be combined to form ethyl amyl ether,
QiiflOii   + iraso4 -i- ir,,o.
cvrl)nso4 + cr)nuoir = cjilocvjin -i-,.
That the sulphuric acid acts in the above manner and not
merely as a dehydrating agent appears not only from t In-
formation of mixed ethers, but also from the fact that the
sulphuric acid may be replaced by phosphoric, arsenic and
benzene sulphonic acids,